Education plays a vital role in sustainable economic development, and primary education lays the foundation for it. Bangladesh runs one of the biggest primary education systems in the world. Thisstudy focuseson motivation of Government primary school teachers. In this perspective, researchers havetried to unfold the relation between salary structure and motivation of those teachers. The study purposivelyselected Pirgang Upazila of Rangpur district as study areawith 120 samples drawn from 24 schools through a simple random sampling technique.The study uses seven hypotheses using the components of salary structure named basic salary, bonus payment, house allowance, medical allowance, tiffin allowance, rest and recreation allowance, and children education allowanceagainstmotivation to achieve the main objective of the study using the chi-square test. All the hypotheses tests clearly showa significant relation between all the components of salary structure except tiffin allowance. The studyfindsteachers’ salary structure is still inadequate. Respondents are not satisfied with all the components of the salary structure except tiffin allowance. The study reveals that in most of the cases, their pay is not adequate to meet the minimum basic needs likefood, housing, clothing, education, and transport. The current levels of motivation have resulted in increased teacher absenteeism, teacher turnover, and professional misconduct, which have affected performance and threatened to affect the achievement of quality education in the study area. The study opines that the concerned authority may keep more attention on not only salary structure but also other motivational factors as well to boost up morale of the primary school teachers to have desired quality in education.