ISSN : 1997-1052 (Print)
227-202X (Online)
 
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Human Excreta of Refugee Camps: The Source of Biogas
Md Sayed Ali
Abstract

Non-renewable natural gas is going to be exhausted very soon and the renewable sources of energy are required in order to fulfil the requirement. It is evident that human excreta can support a part of fuel. The aim of the study is to assess how human feces can be utilized as a source of fuel gas. Biogas is a mixture of Methane, Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide which can be oxidized or combusted in the presence of Oxygen. Biogas can be used as fuel in cooking and heating purposes. In addition, electricity and heat can be produced if biogas is used in gas engine. Study with biogas production from human excreta is a social research in nature, so both the qualitative and quantitative research method was taken into consideration.500 refugees were considered as one unit for collection of their excreta in septic tank. Studied from journals, articles, research reports from other national and international organization for secondary data. One person passes 250-300 grams of fecal matter per day [Andriani, D., et al 2015].. 500 - 520 living members in a camp can give rise to 150 Kilogram of carbon per day. At least 24% carbon in 150 Kilogram dry matter in one day. Methane containing biogas provides heat energy approximately 6-8 kWh/m3 equivalent to 0.5liter of diesel or 5.5 kg of firewood. Therefore, some 200 liters of biogas equivalent to 1.0 kg of firewood, 100 liters biogas equivalent to 1.0 kg dried animal dung, 500 liters of biogas equivalent to 1.0 kg charcoal, and 50 liters of biogas equivalent to 1.0 kg human excreta. Literature evident that each cubic meter (m3) of biogas contains equivalent of 6.0 kWh of calorific energy [Balat, M. and Balat, H., 2009]. Ten million refugees in the world can produce 388.8 billion K.cal energy or 0.0927 billion kilo watt hour electricity. This bio-energy can be beneficial to economy, social and environmental condition and agriculture field as well.

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